Thoughts of creatine are often typically associated with muscular men whose primary goal is to bulk up, but should creatine for women hold the same lauded status?
Although creatine supplements, more specifically - creatine monohydrate, are popular for improving performance, there is a stereotypical belief that its benefits are restricted just for male gym-goers, or those looking to build muscle and bulk up.
However, the benefits of creatine for women should not be underestimated, especially for those who want to improve their workouts and overall health. In this guide, we will explore the following contents:
- What is Green Creatine?
- What Does Creatine Do?
- Benefits of Creatine for Women
- Creatine For Women in Sports
- Does Creatine Affect Men and Women Equally?
- How to Use Creatine
- How Much Creatine Should Women Take?
- Creatine Side Effects, Safety & Precautions for Women
- Creatine Myths
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What is Creatine?
So, what is creatine? You’ve probably seen it before; big tubs of it in health shops or sports sections in supermarkets. However, despite its presence being so common, there is still a general lack of knowledge surrounding what it is and the benefits it can have for you.
Creatine is an amino acid that our bodies both create naturally, as well as obtain from external sources and store in our muscles and brain to use as a natural energy source.
When our bodies require energy, such as when we exercise, it calls on creatine by converting it into phosphocreatine, which in turn, fuels our muscles.
It is produced primarily in the liver, from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine.
Amino acids are the compounds that form protein in the body, and for those who don’t know, proteins are what make up the majority of our body parts, from muscles, bones, skin, and even our hair - so you can see why amino acids are vital for bodily functions.
It is also worth highlighting that creatine is not a steroid, and in fact has no relation at all to hormones. And despite being made up of amino acids, creatine is not considered a protein as it is metabolised differently. In contrast to proteins, when creatine is broken down, it does not involve the removal of nitrogen when excreted from the body by the kidneys.
While creatine is available as a powdered supplement which you may typically associate it with, you can also get it through a variety of natural food sources, such as: fish, red meat, organ meat (liver, heart, kidneys) and pork.
For those who follow plant-based diets who likely don’t receive much creatine through their diets, creatine supplements are a great way to sustain and support healthy levels in the body.
What Does Creatine Do?
In its most simplified explanation, creatine helps the muscles work harder and longer by helping to replenish the fuel (aka adenosine triphosphate - ATP) within muscle cells, which allows the muscles to sustain energy.
Now, in its more scientific term.
Creatine enables your muscles to sustain energy by helping to replenish ATP, the organic compound that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells (including muscle contraction, condensate dissolution, nerve impulse propagation and chemical synthesis).
In your muscles, creatine combines with a phosphate molecule to create a compound called phosphocreatine, and when in this form, phosphocreatine plays a primary role in energy metabolism within the muscle cells - something that is especially useful in activities that require short bursts of intense energy.
There is, of course, an even more elongated version of how creatine works in the body, however all you need to know at this point is if you want your muscles to contract (which is necessary for actions such as lift a weight or move effectively) you have to expend ATP.
Within the muscles, there is only a limited supply of ATP, and if this is not replenished, your muscles will not be able to continually contract, therefore resulting in fatigue - at a quick pace, too. In order to replenish ATP, your body needs creatine.
Creatine Is one of the most extensively studied ergogenic nutritional aids (ergogenic aids are aimed primarily at enhancing performance) available on the market, particularly when it comes to increasing high-intensity performance capacity and lean body mass.
However, despite its vast research, including this 2003 study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, creatine still continues to be surrounded by an array of myths regarding the safety and effectiveness of its uses. Such myths include:
- Creatine supplements promote weight gain
- Increases in weight are the result of increased water retention
- Creatine supplements are unethical - with some even believing they are illegal
- Creatine causes dangerous and painful effects, such as: dehydration, cramping and altered electrolyte status
In this article, we will debunk these myths and the common misconceptions of the use of creatine for women and instead showcase the plethora of benefits available for female populations.
Benefits of Creatine For Women
Now you’re up to scratch with what creatine is and how it works; but you’re now left wondering ‘should women use creatine?’ and what are the exact advantages that we have mentioned of women taking creatine?
Creatine offers plenty of general benefits for all genders, however there are many that cater towards more women-specific ones that aid goals that are typically associated with women. So, what are they?
#1 Helps Build Lean Muscle Mass
While the fitness industry is slowly coming away from the old-fashioned stereotype of women fearing strength training, there is still a lingering belief that weights and supplements will ‘bulk women up’, which may not be the desired goal for all women.
What is often mistaken is the idea of ‘bulking up’ with ‘building lean muscle mass’ - which is actually what creatine promotes.
Creatine has been labelled as one of, if not the most, effective supplement for increasing muscle mass and strength. Building muscle, along with proper nutrition, helps create a strong, toned physique that is a fat-burning machine.
Creatine's role in muscle mass gain is the result of two of its functions. Firstly, creatine increases the amount of water in the muscles; creating a better environment for muscle growth by increasing nitrogen balance, positively changing the expression of genes that influence hypertrophy and producing anti-catabolic effects, also known as the muscle protecting effects.
Secondly, creatine lays out the foundation for users to lift heavier and for more reps; indirectly improving muscke mass. As you use additonal strength when continuing reps for beyond the cpacity you would without creatine supplements, this allows you to place your muscles under a greater stimulus for growth.
Building lean muscle in itself offers a range of sought after benefits for women, such as: an increased metabolic rate, promoting a toned shape and stronger bones and reduces the risk of injury.
Building muscle mass, like you can imagine, is one of the many benefits of strength training. To read more about resistance training, check out our article.
#2 Increases Strength
In addition to promoting lean muscle mass, creating supplementation can always increase strength in users.
As we have explained, ATP is the primary fuel source when it comes to high-intensity exercise exercise. Creatine increases phosphocreatine and therefore increases ATP production, making it one of the very few supplements that hold sufficient evidence in increasing strength and power.
In an early study, researchers examined the effects of creatine supplementation during a 10-week resistance training program in physically active, but untrained, women.
During the 10-week program, all women performed resistance exercises for one hour, three times per week. A 20-gram/day loading dose of creatine for four days was followed by five grams per day for the remainder of the program.
After the four-day loading regimen, muscle PCr levels increased by 6 percent and the five-gram maintenance dose was adequate to maintain this increase over the duration of the study. When strength was tested at the end of the 10 weeks, women in both groups showed significant improvements in strength in all exercises, which is expected, given that they were all untrained.
However, the women taking creatine had a 20–25 percent greater increase in one-rep max (1RM) strength for the leg press, leg extension, and back squat compared to the women taking nothing.
This study is just one of many that highlights the benefits of creatine for women looking to increase their strength; whether that be in the gym and reaching a new 1RM, or simply in everyday life to make general tasks easier.
It's not only resistance training where you can reap the benefits of improved strength either. You may be surprised to find out one of the benefits of power yoga is increased strength - another activity where creatine can enhance your performance.
#3 Promotes Weight Loss
Contrary to the popular belief that creatine is strictly a mass building and performance enhancing supplement, creatine supplementation can in fact promote weight loss in users.
It's important to note that the weight loss benefits of creatine for women come as an indirect result of the benefits it offers towards enhanced exercise performance, reducing fatigue and recovery time.
Through the enhancement of exercise performance, it means people can exercise for longer periods, often at a higher intensity, which effectively leads to fat burn and in theory, weight loss.
The same theory applies to its advantages in reducing recovery time, as it means people will take less recovery days and can approach each workout with optimal commitment as opposed to alcking fatigue from yesterday's leg day.
Additionally, creatine helps the body gain and retain metabolically-active lean muscle tissue, which makes it an indirect fat burner.
The more muscle we have on our body, the more we can push ourselves during a workout, and the more calories we can burn both during training sessions and whilst we rest. More muscle als equates to more calories buried throughout the day, which results in a faster metabolism that can help speed up weight loss and fat burn.
However, it’s important to note that some creatine supplements, mainly ones marketed as helping users increase their size, contain carbohydrate powders that will increase weight gain.
If you would be interested in not only developing your knowledge of weight management, but pursuing a career in it, then you may want to head over to OriGym's Level 4 Diabetes Control and Weight Management course page where you can find out the next steps.
#4 Prevents Bone Loss in Women Over 50
As we age, our bones encounter a natural decrease in both mass and density; this particularly prevalent in women who have undergone their menopause. Fortunately, creatine can help mitigate and improve this loss of bone density.
Low bone density can be detrimental in our older years, and lead to problems like osteoporosis and sarcopenia, therefore finding ways to minimise its risks are sought after. Luckily, there is evidence to suggest that creatine could be the answer to helping this.
This link between creatine and bone loss in older women was brought to light in a 2015 study which looked at post-menopausal women who committed to a year-long programme of supervised weight training, combined with creatine supplements.
The findings of the study highlighted that the sample of women who paired training with creatine, as opposed to those who performed the programme with a placebo, achieved a measurable bone increase. The creatine group also benefited from a reduction in bone mineral density loss when compared to the greater loss of those in the placebo group.
The study provides sufficient evidence for the theory that creatine slows down the natural bone density we inevitably suffer with age.
The same researcher from the 2015 study went on to expand on this research, and in the most recent findings from 2019, Dr Candow found:
“Creatine supplementation, with and without resistance training, has possible anti-sarcopenic and anti-dynapenic effects. Specifically, creatine supplementation increases aging muscle mass and strength (upper- and lower-body), possibly by influencing high-energy phosphate metabolism, muscle protein kinetics and growth factors.
Creatine supplementation has shown potential to enhance bone mineral in some but not all studies, and seems to affect the activation of cells involved in both bone formation and resorption. Creatine has the potential to decrease the risk of falls experienced by aging adults which would subsequently reduce the risk of fracture.”
While the findings are positive and the evidence to support creatine for women post-menopause is promising , it is important to note that the study was a first of its kind, and more research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of creatine for women over 50.
#5 It’s Safe and Practical
As the supplement market continues to grow and new offerings appear on a regular basis, there are always concerns about the knowledge we have of what we are putting into our body.
One of the benefits of creatine is it has been vastly researched and there are plentiful resources available where you can read up on its pros and cons.
The concerns that surround its reliability and safety potentially stem from the myth that creatine is an anabolic steroid, however like we have already established - it is not!
Creatine for women boasts more research on safety and effectiveness than many other popular women's supplements, such as CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid), carnitine, and glutamine. You can have confidence in knowing there are no sport-governing bodies that consider creatine a banned supplement either; making it an entirely safe supplement for athletes and sports people alike.
Creatine can also be found in a number of whey products. For instance, it is present in more than one option on our shortlist of the best cheap whey protein powders.
While it does have some side effects that we will explore in more detail later on, many of the potential effects tend to be rare and quite mild and only occur when consumed in mass quantities.
Overall, creatine for women and men has been utilised for over a decade since being discovered in the 1800’s, and there are over 500 studies supporting its safety and effectiveness.
#6 Improves Brain Function
Similar to that of your muscles, the brain also stores phosphocreatine and requires plenty of ATP for optimal function, which as we know, creatine promotes.
Studies have proven that creatine can improve your cognitive function, as well as protecting the brain! The brain needs energy just as much as your biceps do, and so creatine is great at providing this!
If the energy supply to your brain is disrupted, brain cells can become damaged and die: this can lead to illnesses like Alzheimer’s disease. Through creatine supplementation, you increase the energy supply to the brain which, in theory, reduces the risk of developing neurological diseases.
Creatine supplements can improve brain function among those with low creatine levels. People who follow a plant-based diet often have lower levels of creatine because they do not eat meat, the main dietary source of creatine. In ta 2003 study, people followed a vegetarian diet and took 5 grams of creatine per day for 6 weeks.
As the graph shows, those who took the supplement scored significantly higher on both memory and intelligence tests than those who did not. Blood tests also showed that the participants’ creatine levels rose as a result of supplementation.
Creatine has become one of the most highly raved about supplements in the running community, which in itself plays an important role in better brain function. For more information on the mental health benefits of running - and trust us, there's a lot - head over to our full article.
Despite the potential benefits of creatine for treating neurological disease, most current research has been performed in animals.
However, one six-month study in children with traumatic brain injury observed a 70% reduction in fatigue and a 50% reduction in dizziness.
Human research suggests that creatine can also aid older adults, vegetarians and those at risk of neurological diseases.
Vegetarians tend to have low creatine stores because they don’t eat meat, which is the main natural dietary source.
In one study in vegetarians, supplementing caused a 50% improvement in a memory test and a 20% improvement in intelligence test score.
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#7 Helps With Muscular Issues
As well as its ability to build on existing muscles, there is evidence to suggest that creatine can help combat issues and illnesses that affect the muscles, such as muscular dystrophies.
Studies have shown that creatine can increase muscle strength in people who suffer from such diseases, which can be varied, but all tend to cause the gradual weakening of muscles in sufferers, really limiting quality of life.
In the study conducted in 2007, the researchers found that through creatine supplementation, the muscle strength of patients increased by an average of 8.5 percent. Patients also benefited from 1.4lbs more lean body mass than the study group who were not given a creatine supplement.
It was concluded short and medium term creatine treatment improves muscle strength in people with muscular dystrophies, with no notable side effects or consequences.
The researchers revisited the same theory in 2013 and supported the correlation between creatine for women and muscular issues treatment, stating:
“Creatine improves functional performance in muscular dystrophy and idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. High quality but limited evidence from randomised controlled trials does not show significant improvement in muscle strength in metabolic myopathies.”
It is worth noting that there is currently no specific cure for muscular dystrophy conditions, but since creatine has been indicated to ease symptoms, it is definitely worth considering for a better quality of life.
However, creatine has been shown to improve muscle strength, and thus mobility in sufferers of these diseases.
#8 Every Day Use
Another misconception about creatine is the belief that it is a supplement only to be utilised by those engaging in regular strength training workouts.
While it is understandable a popular supplement for those who strength train due to the mass benefits it offers for gaining muscle, it is not simply restricted to this population.
Creatine supplements for women are totally appropriate to be used if you don’t work out regularly. You don’t necessarily need it as your body creates creatine naturally and you will likely obtain it from dietary sources, however adding additional creatine into your diet should not present any negative effects, allowing you to reap the popular benefits of creatine for women whether your lifestyle consists of fitness or not.
If it would help you feel more comfortable making creatine part of your everyday lifestyle by reading more information on it, we recommend heading over to our amino acids guide.
What’s more, creatine is a unique supplement in the sense that it does not contain any calories - so if you are on a calorie deficit, it possesses no threat when not being combined with carb heavy, protein rich diets and a strenuous workout plan (this is when it's bulking benefits take action).
#9 Suitable For Vegetarians
Since creatine is naturally found in meat products, vegetarians and vegans particularly may want to consider supplementing with it on a daily basis to ensure their body is receiving an adequate amount of the amino acid.
This can be useful, as vegetarian and vegan diets lack foods like red meat which are so rich in the ingredients the body needs for making creatine.
Additionally, those who have adopted a plant-based lifestyle often have much lower levels of creatine in their bodies since they do not eat meat, which as we know is the main dietary source of creatine.
A study looked at people who followed a vegetarian diet and supplemented with 5g of creatine a day for a six week period. The results showed that those who used creatine scored significantly higher on both memory and intelligence tests than the vegetarians who did not.
Results from the study’s blood tests also found that the participants’ creatine levels rose as a result of supplementation.
The research that supports the theory that taking creatine supplements for women who follow a plant-based diet will keep muscles and brain functioning efficiently is to date promising, but more human studies are needed for full classification.
If you have found this article interesting so far, then we think you might enjoy the following reads:
Creatine For Women in Sports
Now we’ve discussed the benefits of creatine for women, let's have a look at some of the more specific applications for this supplement. Sport is perhaps one of the most common and obvious fields that the benefits of creatine for women are most sought after, as most many sports place real strain on the muscles.
As we explained earlier, creatine is a naturally occurring amino acid compound stored in the human body and can be found as creatine phosphate (CP) in the phosphorylated form. You need ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for muscular contraction, and when this ATP runs out, or runs low, CP is able to aid in ATP resynthesis.
Creatine may also be used as a proton buffer, meaning that during bouts of high intensity exercise, creatine may help to clear lactate or hydrogen ions from the system. By regulating this process, creatine maintains muscle pH balance and prevents acidification resulting in performance decrements. These two points become especially important during high intensity activity, i.e. HIIT training, and in training at high demands.
Bottom line, creatine for women athletes means that they may be able to squeeze out a few more reps, go heavier, or even kick out another interval during HIIT session when creatine is readily available (Rawson et. al. (Tarnopolsky MA, 2000).Creatine is like rocket fuel. If you really want to take off, you MUST have that booster fuel in the tank. Otherwise you’re just crankin’ the gas like everybody else. This resynthesis becomes important during training so the athlete is able to train at a higher intensity and increase adaptation to a greater exercise stimulus.
But it's not just bodybuilders, weight lifting and those engaging in heavy lifting sports who will benefit from creatine. A 2011 study into the effects of creatine on both anaerobic performance and sprint swimming records of female competitive swimmers found significant improvements in 1-repetition maximum bench press, 60 yard dash swimming and vertical jump ability. The results came after four 5g doses of creatine over the course of jst six days.
The swimming participants were already part of a vigorous training progra, yet still saw significant improvements in the short period of the study. This lays a solid framework for the case of creatine supplementation in both the long and short term, not only without harmful effects, but with significant improvements in female athletes.
Creatine has obvious benefits for sports with a strength aspect, like rugby, weightlifting, or boxing. However, it will also help in endurance-based sports, like cycling, swimming or long-distance running, making creatine for women athletes a supplement that shouldn’t be underestimated. For more tips on achieving an effective strength training routine when on a plant-based diet, we advice you to check out our vegan weight training and workout tips guide.
Does Creatine Affect Women and Men Equally?
Despite creatine’s reputation as a male-focused supplement, there’s really no difference in the practical effects of creatine on men and women.
Despite the differences in female and male anatomy, creatine is naturally occurring in both genders, therefore its logic remains the same; providing the muscles with energy, and increasing muscle mass.
The differences that are known between creatine for women and men only present a great case for female supplementation. For instance, women produce approximately 70 - 80% of the amount of creatine which men do, and it is also suggested their dietary intake of creatine may be lower too, due to a lower daily calorie recommendation.
However, science suggests that women are more efficient storers of creatine within the muscle cell, meaning that despite their lower level, they will still likely achieve the same benefits from creatine.
Additionally, men have higher testosterone levels than women; a hormone which plays a massive part in increasing muscle mass. For this reason, men supplementing with creatine may find they gain more muscle mass than women, however this is one of the few notable differences.
How to Use Creatine
Creatine for women can be taken in powder, pill or capsule form. In powder form, you are recommended to mix it with water to make a creatine packed drink to fuel yourself with.
When you’re looking for a creatine supplement, it’s important to choose one with pure ingredients and no fillers, ensuring you read the ingredients and know what you are putting into your body and the effects these ingredients can have.
Women take creatine for a variety of reasons, from trying to gain size to trying to lose weight, and it’s important that you choose a protein powder that allows you to achieve this.
There are a variety of creatine supplements available to shoppers on the market, with none of the options presenting a ‘better creatine’ than the others.
The types of creatine supplement can include:
- Creatine Monohydrate Powder
- Creatine HCl
- Creatine Ethyl Ester
- Creatine Citrate
- Creatine Pyruvate
- Creatine Hydrochloride
- Creatine Blend
Alternatively, as previously mentioned creatine can be found in a number of food sources. This makes a great, natural method for increasing your creatine levels.
How Much Creatine Should Women Take?
So, how much creatine powder for women is a safe amount?
As a general guide, most supplement brands and nutrition stores recommend a dose of between 3-5 grams of creatine suffices as a suitable amount to maintain optimal muscle stores. This is also enough to ensure that you are simply ‘topping up’ on the amount of creatine that the body produces naturally and allows you to achieve the mentioned benefits of creatine for women quickly.
For those interested in creatine loading, a practice where users take increased amounts of creatinine order to rapidly increase the creatinine stores and reap the benefits faster, women may look to take around 20g of creatine a day, in doses of around 5 grams at a time, for around a week.
This would quickly boost the creatine supply, and then once the recommended 5-7 days of the loading phase is over, users return to their regular creatine dosage.
Creatine loading is a generally safe practise, however you may be subjected to side effects that you wouldn’t when taking a lower dose of creatine; a sore stomach for example.
Creatine loading for women is just as safe as it is for men, so it may be worth reading up and gaining more information on this technique if this sounds like something you are interested in doing.
Creatine Side Effects, Safety and Precuations for Women
Creatine is regarded as one of the safest dietary supplements out there. It’s been around for a while, and there are hundreds of studies to support that! However, like anything in life too much of something can be a bad thing, and creatine is no different.
However, good practice and caution will help you avoid most of its potential side effects.
Creatine pros and cons are very personal: each individual person needs to weigh up if this supplement is right for them, however we have listed below the most common side effects of creatine for women.
- Dehydration: Some have suggested that creatine can cause dehydration. As creatine can help increase exercise capacity, promoting longer and more intense workouts - this can lead to more fluid lost through sweat. Therefore, a greater amount of fluid is required to replenish what the body has lost. You can avoid dehydration by drinking plenty of water both before, during and after exercise.
- Bloating: Excessive creatine use can also cause some slight digestive issues and discomfort. Creatine bloating can occur in women, but this can be avoided by not taking excessive amounts of the supplement and sticking to recommended doses.
- Cramping: In terms of muscle cramps, dehydration can lead to muscle cramping, therefore ensuring the body is hydrated will significantly reduce the likelihood of cramping.
Weight gain and water retention are also proposed negative side effects of creatine supplementation. Though this has been demonstrated in some findings, it was also suggested that they are both likely down to improper dosing/mixing of the creatine supplement.
Generally speaking, creatine is a safe and effective supplement that does not usually result in significant increases in body weight or fat-free mass in women.
Myths surrounding creatine supplements for females have been pushed since the 1990’s, with tales ranging from kidney damage to mass bulk weight gain and dehydration.
Let us set the record straight, creatine is one of the most researched supplements on the market, and in all this research it is confirmed that no significant harmful effects have been found in healthy individuals.
While we have quashed these myths throughout the article, below we have highlighted some of the most prevalent rumours that continue to linger around the amino acid.
However, if you’re interested in reading more, we have an entire article dedicated to creatine myths vs facts.
Myth #1 “Creatine will make me bulk up”
Perhaps one of the most common misconceptions surrounding the use of creatine supplementation is the idea that it will suddenly transform users into a muscle-bound beast type of character, ready to compete in StrongMan competitions. However, this isn’t quite what is meant by it’s lean muscle mass properties.
Creatine consumption alone will not add on kilograms of weight and mass. Combined with a rigorous weight training program and a special diet, creatine provides the tools to promote muscle mass gain, but this in itself can be avoided by your diet.
Myth #2 “Creatine is a steroid”
Steroids have a mixed reputation which is most prominent within the world of sports. However, this isn’t important, as creatine is not a steroid. It is a naturally occurring amino acid that the body produces itself, as well as being present in an array of food sources.
Creatine is a tripeptide compound, ( a compound made up of three amino acids) and it does not possess the steroid backbone.
By the steroid backbone, we’re referring to the structural feature that makes up a steroid molecule: four conjoined cycloalkane rings; specifically, 3 cyclohexane rings and a cyclopentane ring.
The belief behind creatine being a steroid simply comes from its ability to increase muscle mass and strength, however this is not what makes something a steroid! Also, creatine is a completely legal supplement and it does it influence hormones anywhere near as much as a steroid would.
The side effects of creatine for women are both rare and mind and present nowhere near as much a threat as that of steroid use and abuse.
Myth #3 “Your muscles will look smaller as soon as you stop using creatine”
Again, this is false. Creatine provides you with the tools to exercise for both longer and at a much higher intensity, including lifting heavier weights, swimming at faster paces or running for further distances. it doesn’t do this artificially, but rather just allows your body to achieve this by providing it with more energy.
The gains and progress you make while using creatine will stay with you once you have stopped using this supplement, as long as you continue to exercise and maintain a dedicated routine.
Myth #4 “Women can’t take creatine”
We hope by now that you can see for yourself how this is amongst the biggest myths of them all.
As you can gather from the information laid out for you in the article, creatine is a vastly researched supplement that is backed significantly by science - and not just in a couple of small studies, but research in the hundreds region.
To date there are likely more studies highlighting the benefits of creatine for women and why more females should implement the supplement into their lives in comparison to the advice against it.
No matter what your fitness goal, whether it is to gain weight and size, tone the body, burn fat, or enhance athletic and exercise performance creatine can be adapted to help you achieve this.
With all this information on creatine for women in mind, you can now make an informed decision on whether to use the amino acid as part of your strength and fitness programme, or simply every day diet, or not.
The research available to date presents promising results that adequate creatine supplementation for durations longer than one month offer beneficial effects on all athletic performance, strength and body composition in women.
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