19 Elliptical Trainer Benefits to Get You Motivated
Using an elliptical trainer benefits you in a variety of ways. From improving your cardiovascular fitness to promoting good heart health, as well as being a fantastic full-body workout, there’s no better time to start using a cross trainer than now.
So, if you’ve ever wondered “what are the benefits of using an elliptical cross trainer?”, then look no further! Here at OriGym, we’ve curated a list of the top 19 benefits of using a cross trainer to get you in the know before starting.
In this article, we've covered the following topics:
- What is an Elliptical Machine?
- 19 Elliptical Trainer Benefits
- Elliptical Trainer Drawbacks
- Elliptical Machine vs. Treadmill
Just before we start, are you interested in launching a successful career in the health and fitness industry? If so, why not check out OriGym’s internationally recognised personal training diploma.
Otherwise, if you want to explore more of what we have on offer here at OriGym and how it could be ideal for you, download our FREE course prospectus today!
Written by Professional S & C Coaches
Download Your FREE 16 Week Home Strength Training Programme
Written by Professional S & C Coaches
What is an Elliptical Machine?
An elliptical machine, or cross trainer, is a stationary exercise machine that mimics the movement of walking, running, climbing stairs and cross country skiing.
The elliptical machine has two suspended pedals that you stand on and move in a circular motion with your legs. There are two handle bars that move back and forth that also mimic the alternating arm movements performed when running and walking. These handles help keep you balanced.
The elliptical machine trains cardiovascular fitness by improving stamina and muscular endurance.
Many opt for using an elliptical machine over other cardio machines for its low impact qualities. When compared with the treadmill, where each step of your walk or run heavily impacts muscles and joints, the elliptical machine works differently. Your feet never lift from the rotating pedals, providing you with a low-impact workout.
The elliptical machine is a full-body workout, primarily engaging the hamstrings and quadriceps while also targeting the glutes, biceps, triceps and core muscles.
So, if you have ever wondered “what are cross trainers good for?”, let’s get stuck into some of the fantastic benefits of this machine that you ought to take advantage of.
Even better, you don’t have to stop at the elliptical cross trainer. We have information on plenty of additional gym machines you can check out here and see which will work best for you!
19 Elliptical Trainer Benefits
There are many ways in which the elliptical trainer benefits you. Whether it be you’re new to the world of fitness or fancy brushing up on your existing knowledge, the following section will provide some insight into the countless ways this machine can improve your health and fitness.
So, without further ado, let’s get stuck into some of our favourite benefits of using elliptical cross trainers!
#1 - Less Impact on Joints
One of the great benefits of the elliptical cross trainer is that there is minimal stress upon your joints, spine, and muscles compared with other cardio machines. For example, while using the treadmill, with each step you take, your joints and bones have to accommodate for the weight of your body as you come back down.
This results in pressure that can build and cause aches, pains and injuries.
So, how does the elliptical trainer prevent this?
With the elliptical machine, your feet never leave the pedals so less impact is put upon your joints, muscles and bones with each rotation.
A 2016 study noted that treadmill runners experience up to 2.8 times their body weight with each step of their run. So, if you’re someone who already has some muscular tension residing in areas of your body or have experienced some slight joint pain when engaging in running, it may be beneficial to transition to elliptical training to help alleviate these symptoms.
That way, you’re still getting a good workout into your routine while being kind to your muscles, joints and bones.
So, one of the fantastic health benefits of elliptical trainers is that you can still feel satisfied after your workout without worsening joint or muscle pain.
However, if soreness persists, it’s vital to ensure you’re giving yourself sufficient rest days. To find out more about recovery periods, click here for OriGym’s guide on the importance of rest days.
#2 - Improves Cardiovascular Fitness
If you approached this article wondering ‘what is an elliptical exercise machine and how will it benefit me?’, you may be glad to find out that these machines are great for helping to improve your cardiovascular fitness!
Cardiovascular fitness is a health-related component of physical fitness. This refers to your body's ability to uptake oxygen and deliver it through the blood to all your working muscles and vital organs for prolonged periods of time.
Cardiovascular fitness improves with regular engagement in aerobic exercise such as running, walking, cycling and, of course, elliptical training. The more you engage in these sorts of activities, the longer you will be able to train your body to perform them.
So now you may be wondering, how long do my elliptical training workouts need to be to improve my fitness level?
The NHS encourages you to engage in heart-pumping aerobic exercise for at least 150-minutes per week. So, just 30-minutes over 5-days is enough to reap these elliptical benefits.
#3 - Full Body Workout
Using an elliptical trainer benefits the body by working a range of different muscle groups.
But what muscles are trained during an elliptical training workout?
A 2012 study aimed to investigate which muscles were most at work when engaging in elliptical training workouts. It established that the hamstrings and quadriceps were the most engaged muscles.
The secondary muscles worked during elliptical training are the glutes, calves, biceps, triceps, anterior tibialis and core muscles.
Your thigh muscles are responsible for facilitating the gliding motion and your calves ensure that your lower body is secure and stable in performing the exercise.
The core muscles also play an important role in maintaining good balance throughout your workout, with the arm muscles working hard to keep the elliptical trainer handles moving forwards and backwards.
A full-body workout is particularly useful if you’re short on time but want to simultaneously engage a range of muscle groups. That way, you’re not having to refer to different exercises to stimulate different areas of the body - just hop on the elliptical trainer and get moving!
Next up, we’re going to outline how a full-body workout on an elliptical cross trainer also benefits weight loss.
#4 - Promotes Weight Loss
Another one of the fantastic benefits of using a cross trainer is that it promotes weight loss.
In reference to the previous point, elliptical trainers provide a full-body workout. Now, did you know that the more muscles at work during a session, the higher your calorie loss will be?
This, in turn, gets you closer to being in a calorie deficit, thus promoting weight loss.
If you’re someone who is wanting to be more mindful of the number on the scales, then elliptical training can certainly help in this department. The more frequently you are in a calorie deficit, the more your body will start referring to fat stores for energy.
According to Harvard Health, the average 155 lb person will burn 324 calories in just 30-minutes on an elliptical trainer. If you’d like to increase the number of calories burned during training, simply increase the resistance on the machine to make your workout more challenging.
So, a great by-product of using an elliptical trainer is that it benefits your weight loss journey - why not start today?
#5 - Defines Your Muscles
With reference to the previous point, did you know that using a cross trainer elliptical benefits the body by toning your physique?
But how exactly does this happen?
As your body begins to lose weight, your body fat percentage reduces too. This means that the underlying muscle will begin to unveil. The end result is a more toned and defined physique. Therefore, elliptical cross trainers benefit weight loss by reducing overall body fat, leading to more definition.
However, while regular elliptical training is super important, in order to lose weight and unveil muscle, a balanced and nutritious diet also plays a significant role. This is because you need to be in a calorie deficit to lose body fat which comes down to the number of calories you’re consuming.
In summary, the elliptical cross trainer benefits your weight loss journey by creating the appearance of a more toned and defined physique by unveiling muscle from a reduction in body fat.
#6 - Improves Your Balance
Next up on our list of benefits of using an elliptical cross trainer is that it helps to improve your balance.
There are various ways that you can use an elliptical trainer. One way is to use the moving handles that shift forwards and backwards. Another is holding onto the stationary handlebar at the front of the trainer or alternatively, you could use neither.
By choosing the latter option, you’re training your body’s ability to maintain a strong and tall posture while rotating the leg pedals.
You may now be thinking, how does this help my balance?
When you let go of the handlebars when performing the elliptical trainer motion, your core muscles engage to support your body’s alignment. You are forced to facilitate the rotating motion without support from your upper body, thus improving your sense of balance the more you use the machine in this way.
However, if you wish to reap these balance-improving benefits, it is encouraged to keep the incline and resistance of the elliptical machine low until you’re comfortable making your workout more difficult.
Taking on too much too soon may result in injury and could hinder your ability to train until you have recovered.
Next up on the list of elliptical machine benefits is that regular participation can alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms - read on to understand how.
#7 - Boosts Mood
A fantastic way using a cross trainer elliptical benefits you is by elevating your mood.
As you engage in physical activity, the ‘high’ you feel afterwards are the endorphins at work. Endorphins are a hormone released by the central nervous system and pituitary gland.
They are known for their pain relieving and mood boosting qualities, resulting in improved mental wellbeing. Therefore, a by-product of this is that exercise helps to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Additionally, whether it be that your fitness is improving or your jeans feel a little loose, regular participation in elliptical training and achieving goals can help improve your self esteem, leading to a boost in mood.
A 2014 study aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on the mental wellbeing of a group of students. After just 6-weeks, the results outlined that their mental wellbeing had significantly improved. It also found many of them wanted to engage in further physical activity to ensure the feeling was maintained.
If you began this article asking ‘what is an elliptical exercise and how does it benefit me?’ Well, now knowing that regular participation can present significant improvements to your mental wellbeing is a fantastic reason as to why you should get involved today!
Explore even more natural mood boosters you can do right now with OriGym’s extensive list.
#8 - Improves Heart Health
Another one of the fantastic benefits of elliptical cross trainers is that it promotes good heart health.
Generally speaking, any form of regular exercise is beneficial for your heart. So, regularly getting an elliptical workout is great for your health. Frequent cross trainer workouts also aid the prevention of illnesses such as coronary heart disease, which affects 7.6 million people each year within the UK.
As your body becomes accustomed to regular exercise, your heart will strengthen. This, in turn, means the heart isn’t having to work as hard to pump blood around the body to other vital organs and working muscles.
This also reduces your blood pressure which is important as high blood pressure is one of the major factors affecting those who develop coronary heart disease.
So, if you approached this article wondering “what are cross trainers good for?”, you now know they’re excellent for improving heart health as well as preventing you from developing serious heart-related conditions.
#9 - Ideal for Beginners
If you’re someone who would like to take advantage of these elliptical machine benefits but are new to the world of fitness, then this form of exercise is perfect for you.
Gyms can be a daunting place to be if you’re not sure what exactly you’re doing. But don’t worry, as the elliptical machine is one of the most straight-forward machines to operate.
The elliptical trainer is performed by the legs rotating in a circular motion. The two pedals move back and forth in sync with the handlebars.
While the first 30-seconds on the machine may feel a little strange, it doesn’t take long to get used to the motion and feel a burning sensation in your legs!
However, if you are new to gym environments and would like some guidance on how to properly use the machines, it is encouraged you ask a PT before beginning. Alternatively, consider booking a gym induction to get some insight on how various machines operate.
It is always best to gain an understanding from a professional before using machines to reduce the risk of injury.
#10 - Great Cardio Workout
The elliptical machine benefits those who don’t enjoy going for runs or jogs. However, while it is a less intense form of physical activity, it still provides a wealth of benefits.
One of the main reasons people don’t enjoy going for runs when aiming to build their fitness is because more often than not, they’re working their body with more intensity than their vital organs can withstand.
This may result in difficulty breathing and muscle fatigue as the heart cannot pump enough blood to working muscles at the rate they’re being used.
This often leads to a lack of motivation to keep engaging with cardio workouts and your fitness journey being hindered.
This is where the elliptical trainer is beneficial! It is a great cardio workout that builds your cardiovascular endurance gradually and is less intense than running on a treadmill.
So, if you’re someone who has thought about engaging in more cardio-based activities but felt as though you aren’t on a fitness level that’s comfortable going out for runs, then this is where an elliptical cross trainer benefits you.
However, if running is something you’d like to try, check out OriGym’s tips to improve your running technique to help get you started!
#11 - Good for Keeping Fit After an Injury
Another one of the fantastic benefits of using an elliptical cross trainer is that it supports those who have acquired injuries but still want to keep fit.
As mentioned earlier, the cross trainer is a low impact machine to use. It is kind to your joints, spine and bones, thus preventing them from stiffening up even when they are recovering from injuries.
Additionally, using a cross trainer increases vasodilation. This is where blood vessels increase in size so that more blood can flow to injured regions of the body.
This process means more oxygen and nutrients are delivered to these areas to flush away any metabolic waste within the injury. This helps you keep fit while also promoting stable recovery.
However, it is important to recognise that you should only do this if you feel as though your body will benefit from it. Do not go to the gym or get on an elliptical trainer if you are experiencing a lot of grief from an injury as this is likely to do more harm than good.
It may be better to wait until the initial pain from the injury has subsided before engaging with elliptical training, as too much too soon could negatively impact your recovery process.
To summarize, using an elliptical trainer benefits your body by keeping you fit and active while recovering from injuries.
#12 - Increases Your Aerobic Capacity
Another one of the great benefits of the elliptical trainer is that it increases your aerobic capacity.
Aerobic capacity refers to your maximal oxygen uptake and how your organs process this oxygen in distributing it to working muscles. The more oxygen your body can uptake, the longer your body can work out for.
This goes hand-in-hand with improved cardiovascular fitness and stamina. You can have more freedom with what activities you do without feeling short of breath or experiencing a tight chest.
Research suggests that there are connections between individuals who have poor aerobic capacity and developing heart conditions such as dyslipidemia. This is where the body contains an abnormal level of cholesterol within the blood.
So, if you’re someone who would like to reap the amazing benefits of using an elliptical cross trainer, then there’s no better time to start than today!
#13 - Flexible Workouts
If you’re still asking, so ‘what are cross trainers good for?’ Well, did you know that cross trainers can provide you with an array of different workouts?
Most elliptical trainers are already equipped with various workout programmes for you to take part in. For example, some workouts mimic hill-climbing, rolling hills and interval training.
Many elliptical trainers also monitor your heart rate to provide an insight into how hard you’re making your body work. This makes it super easy if you want to adjust the resistance at any time.
Additionally, many who use elliptical trainers also construct their own workouts so that each time they workout, they are doing something different.
An example of a HIIT workout you could try is:
- Begin with a warm-up: 5-minutes on a low incline and resistance to prepare the muscles and increase the heart rate.
- Increase the incline and resistance for 60-seconds, pedalling as hard as you can.
- Decrease the resistance back to moderate for 30-seconds for recovery before repeating steps 2 and 3. This will be for 15-minutes in total.
- Consider doing 3-minutes of low resistance at the end to cool-down.
If you’re someone who likes doing something a little bit different with each workout, then you’ll be pleased to know that this is another one of the great benefits of the elliptical trainer!
#14 - Improves Musculoskeletal Health
Another way the elliptical machine benefits you is that it is known for improving musculoskeletal health.
But, what is this and why is it important?
Having good musculoskeletal health means your muscles, joints and bones work well together without developing aches and pains. Those with good musculoskeletal health can carry out daily activities with ease and efficiency.
Therefore, in relation to elliptical training, musculoskeletal health is improved due to the constant weight put upon your muscles and bones from the resistance. Over time, more bone cells grow which increases bone mass.
Bone health becomes an increased concern in later life as they become more brittle with age. It is incredibly important to consider improving your musculoskeletal health by engaging in regular elliptical machine workouts.
Next, we’ll outline how the elliptical trainer is a great machine to use while multitasking.
#15 - Ability to Multitask
Another one of the great benefits of using a cross trainer is that it is super easy to perform multiple activities when completing a workout.
Many who use elliptical trainers enjoy watching TV, movies or even reading books on an eReader while they’re working out. This is especially useful for those who struggle to maintain high energy levels before and during a workout.
As mentioned earlier, elliptical trainers are very straightforward, and so it’s easy to keep invested in your favourite TV show while also keeping fit and healthy.
So, if you’ve ever wondered what the benefits of using a cross trainer are, then being able to watch or read whatever you please while working out is definitely a great example! If you want something to listen to during your workout, why not check out some of our fitness podcasts to help keep you motivated!
#16 - Reduces Breakouts
Another one of the great benefits of elliptical trainer workouts is that it promotes good skin health.
As you engage in regular, heart-pumping workouts, this increases the volume of blood around the body and to your skin.
Now, you may be thinking - why is this important?
As blood cells circulate the body and reach your skin, they discard waste from skin cells which reduces the occurrence of breakouts and promotes healthy, glowing skin.
However, if you are someone who wears make-up, ensure that it is removed before you work out! The reason for this is, as your body temperature increases through exercise and you perspire, the sweat and make-up mixes together and clogs up your pores, allowing acne-causing bacteria to easily multiply.
Sweat is good for our skin, so make sure your pores aren’t clogged with anything before you work out.
So, knowing that elliptical training benefits your body and skin is another reason to start pedalling!
#17 - Low Maintenance
Using a cross trainer elliptical benefits you as they’re such a low maintenance piece of machinery.
What we mean by this is that you don’t need much time to complete a good workout. Trying to balance things like work, family, being social and staying active, all while having 8-hours of sleep, is difficult.
So, if you’re someone who would like to reap the amazing benefits on this list without taking up too much time then the elliptical is for you.
Whether it be that you want to do a super intense 15-minute session or a moderate 30-minute session, it is certainly possible to do either one and still feel satisfied afterwards.
The NHS encourages everyone to engage in at least 150-minutes of aerobic exercise per week which equates to just over 20-minutes per day, or 30-minutes over 5-days. Whatever your preference, this can be done on an elliptical machine to keep you healthy, fit and happy.
Next up on the list of benefits of using an elliptical trainer is that it helps you target specific muscles while also being a full-body workout!
#18 - Targets Weaker Leg Muscles
The elliptical trainer benefits exercise routines by being a full-body workout while also targeting specific leg muscles.
If you’re someone who would like to increase the strength of your legs then the elliptical is for you. It primarily targets the hamstrings and quadriceps to facilitate the circular pedalling motion in a low-impact way.
Over time, your muscular endurance will improve along with your strength so that you can feel confident in using these leg muscles more frequently and during other activities.
So, if you approached this article wondering “what is an elliptical machine and how would it benefit me?”, knowing you can still engage a range of muscle groups while being able to target weaker leg muscles is a fantastic reason as to why you should begin your elliptical training journey today.
#19 - Popular Piece of Equipment
If you’ve gotten this far in the article and want to begin reaping the benefits of elliptical trainer workouts, you may find it comforting to know that the elliptical machine is one of the most common machines equipped in gyms.
Whether you’re a member of a major gym or use the communal gym in your apartment building, more often than not, you’ll find gyms are equipped with elliptical machines.
This is great if you’re wanting to stick to a specific programme and need a cross trainer each session as you won’t feel hindered in your progress.
Additionally, the popularity of these machines proves how effective they are and why they are favoured by fitness fanatics around the world.
So, what are you waiting for? Kick start your fitness journey today to reap these elliptical benefits!
There we have it, OriGym’s top 19 health benefits of elliptical trainers. From improving your cardiovascular fitness, balance, and heart health, to being super low maintenance and versatile, the elliptical machine benefits you in many ways.
Now, to keep the discussion balanced, it’s only fair we draw your attention to some potential cross trainer disadvantages to make you aware of the risks.
Enjoying this article so far? Here’s three others you might find useful:
Elliptical Trainer Drawbacks
To ensure you have a broad overview of everything you need to know about the cross trainer, the disadvantages of this machine ought to be brought into the discussion.
#1 - Not Suitable For Everyone
While the cross trainer benefits those who have joint and bone pain, if you have suffered a serious injury to the knee, the cross trainer may still cause you some discomfort when exercising. While significantly less impactful compared with exercising on a treadmill, there is still some resistance involved that the joints have to deal with.
To be sure of whether the elliptical machine is appropriate for you, consider consulting a PT at the gym or your doctor before potentially worsening symptoms.
#2 - Expensive To Own
Gym equipment is not cheap, but many view purchasing their favourite gym machines as an investment. In regards to the elliptical trainer, the most basic models start from around £200. More high-tech cross trainers that are equipped with an array of workout programmes reach up to £1,500.
However, this is only a slight drawback if you are wanting to train at home. If you’re looking to purchase some exercise equipment, check out our complete guide on how to build your own home gym.
#3 - Risk of Becoming Monotonous
While the cross trainer benefits you by being super low maintenance and easy to operate, some find that the pedalling motion can become monotonous. With other forms of fitness such as weight training, you typically move through various exercises during one workout, but with the elliptical machine, you’re restricted to the same movement.
Now, this isn’t to say that each workout has to be the same. As mentioned earlier, most ellipticals are programmed with different workouts to keep your sessions interesting.
#4 - Low-Impact May Not Be Preferable
Everyone’s fitness goals are different. While low-impact exercise may be preferable to you, it doesn’t necessarily mean that it is suitable for all. If you prefer to engage in other machines at the gym, consider using the elliptical trainer as a warm-up and/or cool-down to reap these benefits if a sole cross trainer workout is preferred.
If low-intensity training isn’t for you, check out our article on the benefits of HIIT training for guidance on how to safely undertake more vigorous workouts.
So, there we have some of the potential cross trainer disadvantages for you to be aware of before you begin your fitness journey.
Next, we’re going to discuss some elliptical trainer benefits for runners.
Using an Elliptical vs. Treadmill
When reading this article, you may have wondered how the elliptical trainer has benefits for runners.
Out of all of the cardio machines, the elliptical machine and treadmill are among the most popular. But which one is better?
Whichever machine you decide to use is entirely dependent on your fitness goals.
If you’re someone who has muscle, joint or bone pain, you probably know by now that one of the benefits of using an elliptical trainer is that it is less impactful upon your body.
Additionally, if you have a musculoskeletal condition, then the cross trainer may also be the better option.
On the other hand, the treadmill replicates a more natural motion of running and walking compared with the elliptical. It also gives you the option to walk on an incline to mimic hiking or increasing speed to do sprints.
If you think the treadmill is more suitable for you, why not read OriGym’s list of the 17 best treadmills to help get you in shape?
If you’re wondering which machine burns the most calories, the elliptical cross trainer benefits your weight loss in a similar way to the treadmill. Per 30-minutes on either the cross trainer or treadmill at a moderate pace burns between 300-350 calories.
Ultimately, whichever machine you opt for is dependent upon your fitness goals and overall health. Both machines provide a wealth of benefits that can seriously improve your fitness, heart health and stamina.
Download Your FREE 16 Week Home Strength Training Programme
Written by Professional S & C Coaches
Do ellipticals help lose belly fat?
If you’re wanting to lose belly fat, then you’ll be glad to know that using an elliptical trainer has benefits for weight loss!
When people engage in exercise, one of the most desirable areas to lose weight is around the belly. And, elliptical training can certainly help with this!
When you exercise on a cross trainer, you’re increasing your calorie expenditure to attain a calorie deficit for the day. This is imperative for weight loss as the goal is to burn more calories than you’re consuming.
According to Harvard Health, the average 155 lb person can lose an average of 324 calories per 30-minutes of exercising on a cross trainer.
So, using an elliptical trainer has benefits for weight loss to help you lose belly fat.
If you’re looking for more fat loss tips, check out our article on types of body fat as well as its benefits and risks.
Is 30-Minutes On The Elliptical Enough?
If you’re wanting to reap all of the health benefits of elliptical trainers, then you may be curious as to how long you should work out.
As mentioned previously, the NHS regards 150-minutes of aerobic exercise as the minimum amount of minutes per week to engage in. This equates to 30-minutes over 5-days.
Whether it be you wish to either improve your fitness, stamina or lose weight, then 30-minutes of elliptical training across 5-days of the week is certainly enough to reap the amazing benefits above.
So, yes, 30-minutes a day using a cross trainer is enough!
Does Elliptical Training Tone The Glutes?
Using an elliptical trainer benefits your body by engaging a diverse range of muscle groups, and this includes the glutes!
For ‘toning’ to work, you need to ensure that you’re in a calorie deficit so that your body refers to fat stores for energy. This will decrease your body fat percentage to unveil the underlying muscle beneath the fat, thus increasing muscular definition.
So, in short, yes - the elliptical machine can help tone your glutes.
Before You Go!
So, there we have everything you need to know!
We’ve covered some amazing benefits of the elliptical cross trainer, as well as compared it with other cardio machines, while also highlighting some potential cross trainer disadvantages to give you an overview of everything there is to know.
There are so many ways that the elliptical trainer benefits runners, fitness newbies and those with joint and muscular soreness to keep you fit and healthy.
So, if you approached this article wondering “what is an elliptical exercise machine and how will they benefit me?”, hopefully you now know everything there is to know about using the elliptical exercise machine!
Do you think you have what it takes to start a career in health and fitness? If the answer’s yes, check out OriGym’s range of personal training courses here.
To find out more about what else we have on offer download our FREE prospectus today!
- Hohmann, E., Reaburn, P., Tetsworth, K., Imhoff, A., (2016). Planer Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 15(2), p.1.
- Prosser, L., Stanley, C., Norman, T., Park, H. and Damiano, D., 2011. Comparison of elliptical training, stationary cycling, treadmill walking and overground walking. Electromyographic patterns. Gait & Posture, 33(2), pp.244-250.
- Ghorbani, F., Heidarimoghadam, R., Karami, M., Fathi, K., Minasian, V., Bahram, M.E., (2014). The effect of six-week aerobic training program on cardiovascular fit-ness, body composition and mental health among female students. Journal of Research in Health Sciences. 14(4) 264-267.
- Wichitsranoi, J., Ladawan, S., Sirijaichingkul, S., Settasatian, N. and Leelayuwat, N., 2015. Relationship between aerobic capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Thai men and women with normolipidemia and dyslipidemia. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(11), pp.3503-3509.