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L-Glutamine: Benefits, Side Effects and Uses

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L-glutamine, or simply glutamine, is an amino acid that plays a significant role in the general health of the human body whilst also providing some additional key benefits. 

There are numerous studies researching the roles and advantages of l-glutamine; it is commonly used to treat people suffering from traumatic injuries, strenuous surgeries, burns, cancer, and more due to its ability to improve nutrition and synthesise protein. 

L-glutamine food sources are abundant: high-protein foods such as beef, chicken, dairy, eggs, and vegetables are good options, meaning that the majority of people will get enough l-glutamine from their diet. For those that don’t, perhaps due to special diets or restrictions, there are also plenty of l-glutamine supplements available to ensure healthy levels of this conditionally essential amino acid.

Here at OriGym we’ve created this in-depth guide to shed some light on the ins and outs of l-glutamine. We’ve included:

Before you jump in to find out about l-glutamine, take a look at our level 4 advanced sports nutrition course to learn even more about the human body and how to be healthy. You can download our free course prospectus as well for more information. 

What is L-Glutamine?

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L-glutamine is a naturally occurring amino acid present in the body on a molecular level. It’s essential to a large number of processes, not least the development of protein. Amino acids are a foundational component of protein production, including l-glutamine, which helps the body synthesise this essential nutrient, as well as other health properties as stated in the Journal of Cellular Physiology:

“Glutamine plays an essential role, promoting and maintaining function of various organs and cells such as kidney, intestine, liver, heart, neurons, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils , pancreatic β‐cells, and white adipocytes. At the most basic level,l-glutamine serves as important fuel in these cells and tissues.” (Curi et al., 2005)

This means l-glutamine is essential for proper bodily function. It also makes l-glutamine supplements especially popular with bodybuilders due to their contribution to protein synthesis, but the amino acid plays a vital role in human health more generally.

There are two forms of l-glutamine which are very similar. L-glutamine is the type you’re probably familiar with, and this is the form present in food, as well as l-glutamine powder and tablets. It’s also produced in the body, and it’s one of the most prolific amino acids. D-glutamine is the less common variant, and it doesn’t play the same key role in protein production.

L-glutamine is abundant throughout the body, which can produce it naturally. It is possible, however, for a l-glutamine deficiency to develop in some, especially those who are recovering from injury or illness. In these cases, the body needs more l-glutamine than it can produce, and additional supplements are required.

If you're looking for other natural ways to boost your health, have a look at the benefits of eggplant by OriGym, or the benefits of blueberries here to see how these foods can improve your nutrition as well.

The additional l-glutamine benefits are wide ranging, but there are some potential side effects that you should watch out for too. Many people ask “what does l-glutamine do?”, which will be further explained throughout this guide. 

The Benefits of L-Glutamine 

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L-glutamine health benefits are numerous. Since l-glutamine affects how the body produces protein, there are plenty of associated advantages in that area, and supplements are often favoured by bodybuilders in search of healthy muscle growth. The following are a few of the more important l-glutamine benefits:

#1 - Treatment of Bone Injuries and Disorders

There are plenty of scientific studies that have suggested that l-glutamine supplements are effective for treating bone and muscle disorders, in particular those associated with arthritis and osteoporosis.

L-glutamine, due to its nature as an amino acid, helps this through promoting protein and hormone production, which are all needed for higher bone density. 

Additionally, there are a few preliminary studies that explore the effects of increased l-glutamine intake whilst recovering from broken bones; one study found that the healing process of the bone was faster when l-glutamine was supplemented. 

Another scholastic article stated that:

“Indeed, dysfunctional glutamine metabolism enhances the development of degenerative bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, and glutamine or glutamine progenitor supplementation can partially restore bone defects which may promote treatment of bone diseases, although the mechanisms are not quite clear.” (Zhou et al., 2019)

This is interesting as although l-glutamine benefits bone structure and skeletal integrity, scientists aren’t entirely sure as to how exactly it does this. There are speculations around l-glutamine’s role in nitrogen distribution, but the evidence is lacking.

#2 - Improve Gut Health

One of the biggest benefits of l-glutamine is the important role it plays in general gut health. Not only do your stomach lining and intestines utilise l-glutamine as fuel for better nutrient absorption and digestion, but it helps protect the mucous membranes found throughout the stomach and intestinal tracts, and also generally helps to prevent infections and inflammation. 

There is plenty of scientific backing that supports the efficacy of l-glutamine benefits for the gut, including this article in the International Journal of Molecular Science:

“The mechanisms of the potentially protective effects of glutamine have been investigated and include maintenance of intestinal mucosal integrity, modulation of inflammatory response, nucleotide biosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stimulation of immunity.” (Perna et al., 2019)

This means that people can take l-glutamine for leaky gut, IBS, Crohn’s disease, among others to help alleviate some of the effects of these conditions, as l-glutamine provokes further mucus synthesis (a common problem seen in most of these conditions) which is needed for proper digestion.  

#3 - Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties 

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L-glutamine has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well which extends the benefits into general health and wellbeing, as well as the potential to treat certain diseases.

Antioxidants are crucial for clearing up free radicals in the bloodstream, which is one of the major causes behind a variety of diseases (including cancer). This basically means that the damage to cells, DNA, and proteins caused by oxidation and the invasion of free radicals is lessened. Antioxidants do this by breaking down the free radicals or by providing the needed electron to neutralize the free radicals.

L-glutamine helps fight oxidative damage, which can help slow aging as well as prevent the onset of diseases such as cancer and glaucoma

Additionally, this amino acid has great anti-inflammatory properties that increase it’s effectiveness at combating cell damage and disease. For example, this was stated in one study on the anti-inflammatory nature of l-glutamine:

“It is observed that the anti-inflammatory effect of l-glutamine is not due to counter irritant action. It is suggested that it may partially mediate its anti-inflammatory activity by interfering with the action and/or synthesis of prostaglandins.” (Jain and Khanna, 1981)

Prostaglandins are compounds that are found in pretty much all of human body tissues; they control bodily processes that are crucial for tissue repair and for fighting infections, as well as controlling blood flow to wounds and reducing inflammation. This means that prostaglandins, and by association l-glutamine, are incredibly important for health.

More specifically, l-glutamine benefits diseases such as glaucoma and Crohn’s disease, and these properties also mean that it might be effective at alleviating the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis.

#4 - Reduce Recovery Times 

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One of the more proven benefits of l-glutamine is it’s effectiveness at helping to reduce recovery times after surgery or severe trauma; it’s often used in hospitals in IV drips to supplement patients going through a long recovery process. 

Part of the reason behind this is due to l-glutamine’s role in the synthesis of crucial compounds and it’s antioxidant abilities that we mentioned before. 

However, the main mechanism behind this is due to its role as a vital fuel source for immune cells. During the recovery process, either post surgery or after traumatic injury, the body’s immune functions are severely reduced as the processes are focussed on repairing damage. This is also why infection is more likely during this time. 

With l-glutamine’s role as fuel for the immune system, it’s important that the levels of l-glutamine are as high as possible, especially when the body is using more than it can produce during recovery. 

One article available on ScienceDirect discusses the impact of l-glutamine supplemented through an IV and the difference when taken orally. They stated;

“Over the last 20 y increasing evidence suggests the importance of glutamine in the function of many organ systems, but the debate continues as to whether or not glutamine is an essential nutrient for muscle, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), acid-base balance, and the immune system in the sick. Significantly improved outcome in the critically ill has been demonstrated in those patients on parenteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine” (Jones, Allan Palmer and Griffiths, 1999)

This is one of many papers stating the efficacy of l-glutamine in reducing recovery times of patients, which is a huge health benefit for those that need it. Since it has been found to be so effective at treating those who are critically ill, this also provides more evidence and hope for those who are looking to improve muscle recovery time after intense exercise. 

#5 - Alleviating Side Effects of Chemotherapy

Following similar scholastic research discussed already, the benefits of l-glutamine extend to reducing the severity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy side effects on patients.

The side effects of cancer treatment involve malnutrition, nausea, mucosal damage, and more general tissue damage. Mucosal damage in particular causes secondary issues such as mucositis (this is the inflammation of digestive membranes in the gastro-intestinal tract, causing pain in the stomach and/or mouth). 

As we now know, l-glutamine is key to maintaining healthy mucous membranes in the stomach, so supplementing or upping the intake of this amino acid will help alleviate the symptoms of any mucosal damage.

Plus, l-glutamine functioning as fuel for the immune system will help cancer patients fight off malnutrition and any infection they might suffer from damage to their skin during radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

L-glutamine is often used to treat skin problems provoked by cancer treatments. This research paper in the journal Nutrients stated:

“Detoxification and resilience to free radical damage by chemotherapy (e.g., doxorubicin or cyclophosphamide) and/or radiation of normal tissues and tumors can involve the antioxidant glutathione. Since glutamine is a substrate for glutathione synthesis, adequate mucosal cell glutamine may contribute towards improved healing after chemotherapy and radiation damage.” (Anderson and Lalla, 2020)

Whilst l-glutamine won’t cure all of these ailments by itself, upping the body’s l-glutamine levels can definitely help ease the symptoms and side effects of cancer treatments. 

L-Glutamine’s Role in Weight Loss

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There’s a growing body of scientific evidence to suggest that the l-glutamine benefits could extend into weight loss aid. There have been claims about this for a long time, but more academic research is being conducted to determine the legitimacy of these claims.

More specifically, studies involving sufferers of type 2 diabetes showed a reduced risk of heart disease and lowered levels of insulin resistance when taking l-glutamine supplements. Similarly, obese individuals saw a reduction in the size of their waists. As stated in the scientific journal Nutrition & Metabolism, one study:

“Examined supplementation of 30 g/dl-glutamine over 6 weeks in patients with T2DM [Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus] and found that l-glutamine caused a significant reduction in body fat mass, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference, and a significant increase in fat-free mass, despite having no effect on overall body weight.” (Jafari-Vayghan et al., 2020)

The reasons behind all of this are complex. It’s thought that l-glutamine plays a role in maintaining the balance of healthy bacteria in the gut. The gut microbiome is made up of a range of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. 

While it may not seem immediately obvious that these microorganisms can keep you from putting on weight, they nonetheless play a big role in weight control and management. They're important for the effective digestion of food and the processing of nutrients, which lowers your risk of excessive weight gain.

L-glutamine also has extremely effective anti-inflammatory properties, which is useful since inflammation is linked to obesity. Moreover, many choose l-glutamine supplements because of their effect on blood sugar. l-glutamine controls blood sugar levels, which means fewer peaks and troughs and increased insulin sensitivity (the insulin works more efficiently). That’s especially important, as lower insulin sensitivity is linked to weight gain.

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Many also take l-glutamine for sugar cravings, and this is one of the reasons behind its effectiveness as a weight loss aid. Quite simply,l-glutamine can potentially stop you craving all the sweet snacks that lead to so many problems in the first place!

High L-Glutamine Foods

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Supplements are by no means the only (or necessarily even the best) way of increasing your l-glutamine intake. There are plenty of foods high in l-glutamine and, best of all, they're quite common, so you won’t need to source exotic ingredients or radically change your diet. The chances are you already eat quite a few of these!

Nutritionists estimate that we probably consume on average 3-6 grams of l-glutamine per day, which is sufficient for most people. If you're suffering from a deficit, however, or want to increase your intake for another reason, there are a range of l-glutamine food sources readily available. It’s most prevalent in:

  • Tofu
  • Skimmed milk
  • Beef
  • Corn 
  • White rice
  • Nuts (dark hued)
  • Leafy greens (such as spinach)
  • Seafood 
  • Cheeses (especially ricotta)

There is a degree of tradeoff that’s important to consider when you’re looking at l-glutamine foods. Plant sources like rice and corn might seem to have a high l-glutamine structure, but that doesn’t tell the whole story: these foods don't contain much protein. 

Since the goal of consuming more l-glutamine is (usually) to boost your body's capacity to produce protein, eating less protein dense foods is somewhat counter-intuitive. There are quite a few factors to weigh up, but high protein and l-glutamine foods like eggs, beef, skimmed milk and tofu offer the best of both worlds, containing substantial levels of l-glutamine alongside plenty of protein.

Supplements aren’t for everybody, especially those concerned about potential side effects, so these natural l-glutamine rich foods are a great alternative. They don’t offer the same levels of l-glutamine as powders or tablets, but they’re a fantastic way to make a gentler, more sustainable change.

Nutritional Value Per Serving

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The basic nutritional profile of a single, 5g serving (about a tablespoon) of l-glutamine equates to 20 calories, 5g of protein and zero fat or carbs. This gives it a fullness factor of 5. Thel-glutamine structure means that it’s all protein, but of course this isn’t the complete picture; unless you choose l-glutamine in pure, undiluted tablet form, the chances are you’ll be taking it with something else. 

That obviously has a big effect on its nutritional value. Powders are often used as the base ingredient for smoothies, but adding in other ingredients like (full fat) milk can inflate the calorie count dramatically, and if you want to sweeten that drink then there’s additional sugar to think about too. 

Many l-glutamine powder manufacturers also flavour their products with artificial ingredients to make them more palatable. That can push the carbohydrate and/or sugar content up as well, so it's something you should look out for. 

Learning about the different types of body fat can help if you're looking to lose weight or boost your general health.

You can also mix l-glutamine powders with soft foods (apple sauce and yoghurt are common choices), but again, this changes the overall nutritional value of the dose. While we can hardly argue against any attempt to make supplements tastier, it is important to keep an eye on what you’re taking with them.

L-glutamine alone isn't particularly filling, but what else you take with it makes all the difference. If you continuously consume supplements in unhealthy smoothies or mixed with high fat foods, this begs the question of why take l-glutamine in the first place, as many of its associated benefits will be lessened.

L-Glutamine Dosage 

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One of the big questions people have when they buy l-glutamine is “how much l-glutamine should I take?”. Taking too much obviously makes l-glutamine side effects more likely to occur, while taking too little means that you won’t reap as many of the benefits. 

There’s a careful balance to be struck, and your dosage will depend on why you’re taking the supplements. For example, a bodybuilder or someone with a diagnosed l-glutamine deficiency will require a higher dosage than someone trying to stifle their sugar cravings.

Individual manufacturers will give you different instructions, and l-glutamine powders and tablets all have specific dosage suggestions because they’re processed differently by the body. That being said, there are some things to bear in mind: starting with a smaller dose is always best (so you can watch out for any side effects), so 5 grams per day is about right.

Moving forward, it’s advisable to take a decent dosage of the supplement per day if you want to have a tangible effect on your plasma l-glutamine levels. That can be anywhere between 20-30g per day. It’s important to divide that dose into smaller increments, so if you’re taking the full 30g, 10g in the morning, 10g in the afternoon and 10g in the evening would be an appropriate timetable. Of course, if you’re taking l-glutamine for its workout benefits, one of those 10g doses could fall straight after your workout.

This, of course, applies to l-glutamine supplements like powders and tablets. L-glutamine foods are the more natural alternative, but even these should be treated with a degree of caution and consumed as part of a balanced diet. Eating any foodstuff in excess is likely to have negative effects, no matter how healthy it is, and foods with l-glutamine are no exception.

When To Take L-Glutamine

Many will wonder when to take l-glutamine, and how to get the best out of the supplement. Timing is important, but you have a few options depending on your needs. Many people choose to take a l-glutamine supplement in the morning or after their evening meal (around 1-2 hours later, on an empty stomach is best). However, if you’re taking l-glutamine powder as a workout aid, then your requirements will be slightly different. 

Most powder and tablet supplements that tell you when to take L-glutamine suggest doing so right after a workout. The reason for this is quite simple. After an arduous session at the gym, several things will happen: first of all, your body's supply of the amino acid will be at its lowest point, and desperately in need of a boost. Secondly, when you hang up your gym equipment for the day your body enters the recovery phase.

The recovery phase requires high levels of protein, especially if you’re a bodybuilder focussed on muscle development. Since l-glutamine plays such a fundamental role in the development of protein, post workout is the optimal time to replenish your stocks. Regardless of whether you choose to take l-glutamine with or without food, that post workout supplement is the most important.

Another reason that post workout is the best time to take l-glutamine lies with how the amino acid speeds up the development of HGH (human growth hormone) in the body. This hormone develops muscles, reduces body fat and also lowers insulin levels. That, in turn, means that your body will burn through less sugar and your blood sugar levels will remain stable, which is great for avoiding post workout slumps, and even better for diabetics. 

Glutamine before bed is another way to boost your recovery process and ensure that your body has a good supply of the microbe as it repairs muscle fibres while you sleep. This is particularly good for muscle soreness, cramps and injury prevention, and it can really speed up your recovery time, leaving you feeling fresh and ready to go when you wake up the next morning.

Associated Side Effects and Dangers

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Much like everything else, taking l-glutamine is a balancing act. There are undisputed health upsides, but taking supplements can have side effects too. Not everybody will experience these by any means, and the effect of l-glutamine on the system is dependent on how much you take, your genetic makeup, lifestyle choices and much more. Crucially however, as Erich Roth states in the Journal of Nutrition:

“Even high amounts of glutamine up to a daily administration of 30 g can be given without any important side effects.” (Roth, 2008)

So if you’re following the recommended daily amounts then you should be fine, but we’ll detail potential side effects just in case.

Before we even get into the specific l-glutamine side effects it’s important to note that anybody suffering from liver or kidney disease should consult a doctor before taking l-glutamine supplements. Similarly, pregnant women should seek medical advice before making any big dietary changes. 

The most dangerous potential side effect of l-glutamine is an allergic reaction, which could even lead to anaphylactic shock. Look out for symptoms including hives and breathlessness, or swelling of the lips, and seek emergency medical help if you experience these. Allergic reactions can happen with any supplement or medicine yet are, thankfully, quite rare. 

More generalised side effects are largely dependent on l-glutamine dosage. They can include:

  • Gastrointestinal symptoms like stomach ache, excessive gas or, in more extreme scenarios, even nausea and vomiting. 
  • Swelling in the areas of the hands or feet is also possible, and generalised back pain can be a risk too. 
  • Some also report headaches and dizziness, as well as fatigue.

It isn’t uncommon to experience milder symptoms like dry skin accompanied by itching, or a runny nose and sweating. These symptoms aren’t exactly uncommon with other medications and don’t mean that l-glutamine supplements are necessarily any riskier than traditional over the counter medications. 

In fact, the answer to “is l-glutamine safe?” is that under most circumstances yes it is, but it’s important to keep an eye out for side effects, especially allergies.

Fitness and Sporting Advantages

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L-glutamine is a popular supplement for many athletes, from runners to weightlifters and everybody in between! This is due to its wide-ranging health benefits, which mean that it’s widely applicable to most disciplines. Another reason for its popularity is that, depending on how much l-glutamine per day is in your diet, it’s easy to divide the doses and structure them around your workout routine.

Due to the strain that athletes put on their bodies during training, l-glutamine can be particularly useful. Bodybuilders will gain the most from the supplement, since the molecules in l-glutamine function to repair muscles and reduce inflammation. That helps muscles to develop quicker and in a healthier manner.l-glutamine also assists in the production of HGH, essential for building muscle.

Anyone who partakes in HIIT training will also benefit, as l-glutamine supplies are depleted during intense workouts. Runners will be pleased to hear that l-glutamine increases fluid uptake and helps to prevent dehydration. It makes training much easier and means that you can exercise more freely without having to worry about dehydration. 

Along similar lines, it’s been proven to help cyclists boost their endurance, and studies involving track athletes showed a sharp uptake in their performance after just 4g of l-glutamine per day for eight weeks.

Taking l-glutamine powder or tablets before bed will also aid in the recovery phase of your exercise, boosting the healing process of muscles, so athletes and bodybuilders could benefit from the l-glutamine effects in this way too.

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L-Glutamine Powder

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Exactly how to take l-glutamine is a contentious issue at times. There are pros and cons associated with both tablets and l-glutamine powder but, generally speaking, powders are the preferred form for those who need a lot of the supplement. 

The reasons for this are fairly obvious: l-glutamine capsules come in very small increments, usually up to just 5g. While this is great for those on a lower dose, it becomes somewhat problematic if you’re trying to take 30g per day, which is exactly what some people will need to do. 

Individuals who take l-glutamine for leaky gut problems tend to swear by powders because they need a higher daily dose. Nobody wants to try and swallow four or five tablets when they could just have a single smoothie. Moreover, l-glutamine powder benefits those who want to control their intake more precisely, as you can measure each dose to match your current needs. 

The advantages run deeper still, as some studies have suggested that powder form l-glutamine shows a slightly better absorption rate than tablets if you need to take a lot. This might not apply to a single tablet, but if you require more than that, powders are probably the way to go. Many also prefer the peace of mind that comes with dissolving l-glutamine powder straight into a liquid. There’s no capsule to worry about and the molecules are delivered directly to the gut. 

Powders can be mixed with hot or cold fluids, and it’s even fine to mix them up with soft foods like porridge or yoghurt. Nowadays they come in a range of flavours, and you can even opt for a completely odourless, flavourless variety! 

L-Glutamine Tablets

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L-glutamine powder might be the most common form of the supplement, but tablets have a lot of benefits of their own. Anybody who wonders “does l-glutamine work?” and wants to test the supplement out before committing to more time consuming powders will love the simplicity of tablets. They’re easy to swallow, require zero preparation and can be taken with or without food. They're a great, stress free way to increase your intake of the amino acid l-glutamine.

Tablets usually come in at around 5g increments. There are no specific disadvantages to choosing the tablet form, either. The l-glutamine in tablets is absorbed by the body just as easily as it is in powders, and there’s no suggestion that the casing has any negative effects. If anything, taking a tablet might even be the best choice for some - since it’s much easier to fit into your day, and you won’t have to worry about missing a dose because you’re running short on time to prepare a powdered drink.

Whether you take l-glutamine with or without food, tablets are effective. They’re also handy if you’re planning to go on a long run, trip or even a race, when carrying powdered drinks around only means excess weight. Tablets can also be slightly cheaper, as a jar of 50 (which equates to an impressive 25,000mg of l-glutamine!) will usually set you back around £8.00.

It’s always important to purchase your supplements from a reputable outlet and read the instructions (especially the list of side effects and interactions) carefully before you start taking them.

Where to Buy L-Glutamine Supplements

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Usually following hot on the heels of the question “what is l-glutamine?” is the question of where to get the supplements from, and which retailers are best. However, there's no right answer, but the more general advice to always look for a reputable retailer with a trusted name always applies. L-glutamine tablets and powders are widely available, both from big retailers like Amazon, and more specialised outlets like Holland and Barrett or Bulk Powders.

Where you get your l-glutamine from will have some influence on the form it takes. For example, many specialised fitness shops will stock l-glutamine peptides. Peptides have an advantage over more common supplements because they're more stable. This means that they don’t break down when added to shakes, or degrade at room temperature. A more stable l-glutamine cell culture means that fewer molecules are lost, and the benefits have more of an effect.

Similarly, you’ll find that many retailers stock BCAA l-glutamine, which is essentially two amino acids combined. BCAA has a role to play in protein synthesis and muscle development too, and combining these molecules in one supplement makes them much faster acting and more effective. BCAA and l-glutamine combinations aren’t seen all that often on the high street, and you’re more likely to find them in specialised bodybuilding shops. BCAA and l-glutamine benefits are considerable, but you might have to put a little work in to find the right supplements.

If you're looking for BCAA tablets, check out our buyer's guide on the best BCAA tablets here.

Whether you’re after l-glutamine weight loss aids, supplements for bodybuilding or even want to try l-glutamine for anxiety, it’s important to do your research. Once you know exactly what type you’re after, shops like Amazon, Holland and Barrett, and Bulk Powders are good places to start.

Conclusion

Naturally produced in the body and found in a range of food sources, l-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid, and vitally important to a range of bodily functions including the production of protein.  

After reading this guide you should have new found confidence in your knowledge of l-glutamine benefits, the best time to take l-glutamine, the side effects of l-glutamine, and a few other helpful snippets of information. 

If learning about nutrition interests you, you can learn even more about it through our level 4 advanced sports nutrition course! Download our latest course prospectus for more information. 

References

  1. Anderson, P.M. and Lalla, R.V. (2020). Glutamine for Amelioration of Radiation and Chemotherapy Associated Mucositis during Cancer Therapy. Nutrients, 12(6), p.1675.
  2. Curi, R., Lagranha, C.J., Doi, S.Q., Sellitti, D.F., Procopio, J., Pithon-Curi, T.C., Corless, M. and Newsholme, P. (2005). Molecular Mechanisms ofglutamine Action. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 204(2), pp.392–401.
  3. Jafari-Vayghan, H., Varshosaz, P., Hajizadeh-Sharafabad, F., Razmi, H.R., Amirpour, M., Tavakoli-Rouzbehani, O.M., Alizadeh, M. and Maleki, V. (2020). A comprehensive insight into the effect of glutamine supplementation on metabolic variables in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Nutrition & Metabolism, 17(1).
  4. Jain, P. and Khanna, N.K. (1981). Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of L-glutamine. Agents Actions, 11(3).
  5. Jones, C., Allan Palmer, T.E. and Griffiths, R. (1999). Randomized Clinical Outcome Study of Critically Ill Patients Given glutamine-supplemented Enteral Nutrition. Nutrition, 15(2), pp.108–115.
  6. Perna, S., Alalwan, T.A., Alaali, Z., Alnashaba, T., Gasparri, C., Infantino, V., Hammad, L., Riva, A., Petrangolini, G., Allegrini, P. and Rondanelli, M. (2019). The Role of Glutamine in the Complex Interaction between Gut Microbiota and Health: A Narrative Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(20), p.5232.
  7. Polat, O., Kilicoglu, S.S. and Erdemli, E. (2007). A Controlled Trial of Glutamine Effects on Bone Healing. Advances in Therapy, 24(1), pp.154–160.
  8. Roth, E. (2008). Nonnutritive Effects of glutamine. The Journal of Nutrition, 138(10), pp.2025S-2031S.
  9. Zhou, T., Yang, Y., Chen, Q. and Xie, L. (2019). Glutamine Metabolism Is Essential for Stemness of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bone Homeostasis. Stem Cells International, 2019, pp.1–13.


 

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Written by Dee Hammond-Blackburn

Fitness Content Executive, OriGym

Join Dee on Facebook at the OriGym Facebook Group

Dee holds a BA (Hons) in English Literature, and is currently finishing her MA in Marketing Communications and Branding from Edge Hill University. Her passion for fitness and content writing brought her to OriGym, and she has since become a qualified Personal Trainer and a Sports Nutrition Specialist. Combining her skills in fitness and writing, Dee has a professional interest in fitness blogging, content creation, and social media. Outside of her writing role Dee enjoys reading, healthy cooking, and playing football with her dalmation.

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