It is a common misconception that the benefits of strength training should be reserved for strength athletes looking to compete in Strongman/Strongwoman competitions, and this leads to regular gym goers overlooking this form of training.
The advantages of this style of training go far beyond bulking and working towards a 1 rep max, however, with health benefits of strength training including: a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, battling the loss of muscle mass in over 50s, reducing symptoms of depression, reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, strengthening bones, as well as a proven success in promoting weight loss.
Within this article, we will be delving into further detail on those suggested benefits, as well as covering all of the following:
- What is Strength Training?
- Benefits of Strength Training
- Strength Training Risks
- How Often Should You Strength Train?
- Sets and Reps of Strength Training
- Importance of Diet with Strength Training
Before we start exploring the benefits of strength training, do you possess an interest in fitness and would be interested in developing that into a successful career? Take a look at the range of REPs & CIMSPA accredited personal trainer courses that we offer here at OriGym, and find the one (or more!) that will suit your goals.
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What is Strength Training?
In layman's terms, strength training is simply the performance of physical exercises designed to increase your strength and muscle mass.
It typically refers to any strength exercise where you use a minimum of 80% of your one rep max (1RM) for the rep range of between one to five, but we will address the sets and reps of strength training later on.
While strength training was traditionally associated with athletes looking to improve their performance by pushing their bodies further, that is no longer the case.
While that is still a hailed benefit of strength training, this form of exercise has also been acknowledged for its role in reducing risk of injury during strenuous activity, along with its weight loss benefits and so much more which will be explained further into the article.
Strength training targets specific muscle groups which work against external resistance. When applying external resistance, the principle is to overload muscles, tearing fibres and forcing them to adapt, grow and strengthen.
The benefits of muscular strength training has been so strongly validated that the Department of Health and Social Care released new guidelines in 2019 recommending everyone to incorporate strength training into their fitness regime at least twice a week.
Strength Training vs Resistance Training
It is important to note that you will regularly see the terms ‘strength training’ and ‘resistance training’ being used interchangeably online, however there is a minor difference worth knowing.
While all strength training falls under the umbrella term of resistance training (as you are training using a form of resistance, i.e. the weights), not all resistance training is strength training.
Resistance training can include exercises that use only bodyweight with no addition of physical weights - it is simply any exercise where you’re pushing or pulling against something that adds resistance. If you’re new to resistance training or a beginner looking to add some more weight into your workouts, then you may want to check out our guide on the best resistance bands for building strength.
This is where it gets slightly complex; when you're new to any type of resistance training, your strength is inevitably going to be lower than those who actively strength train. This means your strength bracket will be much lower and while you will be actively working on improving your strength with the likes of bodyweight exercises, this is not technically training for strength purposes.
For instance, a person who, at their maximum level, can manage a total of two push ups will be engaging in strength endurance training by working to improve this. However, just because this fits their temporary strength bracket, does not mean they're strength training; instead, they simply want to increase the number of push ups they can perform.
Unlike strength training, general resistance training does not require you to use a minimum of 80% of your 1RM.
In short, strength training is simply training for the desired otucome of increasing your strength; not your fitness, stamina, number of reps you can do, but purely improvement of strength. So while bodyweight pushups fall into the resistance training category, they do not technically fall into that of strength training, as when performing a push up you're not training for strength, but for endurance.
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What are the Benefits of Strength Training?
#1 Increases Muscle Mass
The most intuitive benefit of strength training, and also one of the best benefits of strength training for older adults, is its ability to increase muscle mass.
The way in which it does this deserves a relatively complex explanation, however let us simplify it for you. Strength training increases the connections between the body’s nerves, which increases the effectiveness of the movement pattern. The better the movement pattern, the more muscle fibres you can activate simultaneously, which in turn increases strength, leading to increased muscle mass.
The NHS now proposes guidelines, for all, outlining strength training as a way to help preserve the muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle power we naturally lose as we age (medically termed 'sarcopenia').
If you need assistance in what strength training exercises to do to reap this benefit, check out OriGym's guide of the best bicep exercises for mass and strength.
After the age of 30, the human body begins to lose up to 5% of its muscle mass as a consequence of ageing. One of the benefits of strength training for over 60s is the ability to reverse this and protect against the loss, therefore resulting in an enhanced quality of life, reduced risk of falls and a generally improved ability to do everyday activities thus allowing us to maintain independence into our later years.
This can be supported by the findings of a 2017 study, which saw a subject group of 101 postmenopausal women undergo 30 minutes of resistance training twice a week. The results demonstrated that by performing a form of strength training into their lifestyles, it improved functional strength in the women, with researchers concluding strength training as a brilliant course of treatment to battle loss of strength, and therefore increase independence into later years. For those who are particularly interested in the benefits of strength training for women, this provides a great insight.
Strength Training vs Hypertrophy Training
It is worth mentioning that though strength training offers a great aid for those wanting to increase muscle mass, the most effective way to do this is by hypertrophy training.
Hypertrophy refers to an increase and growth of muscle cells through exercise, which results in increased muscular size. There are two forms of hypertrophy: myofibrillar (the growth of muscle contraction parts) and sarcoplasmic (increased muscle glycogen storage).
The exercises and equipment used for both hypertrophy and strength training, however, are near enough the same, with the primary differences between the two being:
- Training intensity - the weight you lift
- Training volume - the number of sets and reps
- Rest - the rest time between sets
However, there is a combination of the two: strength hypertrophy training. This takes the elements of both forms and meets halfway in the middle, with a 3-5 set range consisting of 5-6 repetitions.
Overall, strength training can help reverse the trend of the inevitable decrease in muscle mass.
#2 Improves Body Mechanics
Those who perform strength training generally benefit from better body mechanics, such as improved balance, flexibility, mobility and posture - making this one of the most important benefits of strength training for overall health.
Our body's balance is dependent on the strength of the muscles that keep us on our feet (stabiliser muscles). Therefore, the stronger those muscles are, the better our balance is in turn. Additionally, strength training can improve flexibility, which is also linked to reducing falls and injuries particularly when we age.
This can be directly supported by the findings of one study which explored the benefits of strength training for seniors further. Researchers concluded that strength training improves balance and coordination by strengthening the body’s stabiliser muscles, which in turn reduces the risk of fall and injury in mature adults by 40% - offering one of the most lauded benefits of strength training for seniors and over 60s
Strength training has been hailed by scientists and experts as one of the largest beneficial effects for flexibility and balance.
By helping joints remain flexible, this has been further linked with relieving symptoms of arthritis. Strong muscles are important for movement, coordination and balance, if a single muscle group is too weak, it puts more stress on joints and connecting tendons resulting in conditions such as arthritis and tendonitis (where tendons swell causing pain and stiffness).
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To conclude this point, there is sufficient evidence to showcase that strength training results in better balance, flexibility and mobility and an overall improvement to the body’s mechanics.
#3 Assists Weight Management
Muscles are a metabolically active, fat burning tissue. What this means essentially is muscles require the use of calories (fuel), even when at rest.
This same tissue also plays a role in increasing the number of fat-burning enzymes and organelles in your body. So to put it simply, the more muscle you have, the more calories naturally burned and therefore the easier it is to to control your weight with limited focus needing to be placed on calorie restriction.
While it may be obvious, one of the most effective forms of training to build muscle mass is strength training, alongside hypertrophy training. Therefore, strength training will in turn achieve the best results in fat burning.
This can be highlighted in the research of a 2017 study, which explored whether aerobic or resistance exercise was most effective in dieting obese older adults. The researchers found that when compared with dieters who performed aerobic exercise, those who carried out a strength training routine lost a significant amount more of fat.
Research shows that regular strength training increases resting metabolic rate (RMR - the number of calories burnt if you were to lie in bed or sit at an office chair) by up to 10%. This comes as a result of the body’s need to re-model post workout.
The remodeling process sees the body use fuel/calories when rested in order to repair the tiny injuries caused to the muscle fibres and connective tissues during strength training. This, in turn, increases calorie and protein consumption by the body at rest.
This keeps the metabolism active and the body a fat-burning machine much longer than any aerobic workout can.
#4 Promotes Stronger Bones
Another one of the more notable strength training benefits is its effectiveness in increasing bone density and strengthening ligaments and tendons. By developing strong bones, this in turn reduces the risk of developing osteoporosis (a disease that causes weakened and fragile bones) and decreases the risk of bone fractures.
Osteoporosis is the result of low bone mineral density, with many experiencing a 3% reduction in bone mineral density every year of their life. Osteoporosis affects an estimated 75 million, resulting in over 8.9 million fractures worldwide.
Strength training can increase the amount of bone mineral per unit of bone tissue by up to 3%, in turn, increasing bone density and reducing the risk of fractures.
One of the health benefits of strength training for older adults as well as younger gym goers is that for each muscle contraction, stress is placed on the bones. This stimulates bone cells which produce structural proteins and minerals. The stronger the muscle, the stronger the bone it is connected to, the stronger the body.
According to a 2017 study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, researchers suggested that by doing 30 minutes of strength training just twice a week, it can improve not only improve functional performance, but bone density, structure, and strength in postmenopausal women with low bone mass, too. In addition to this, the study identified no negative effects.
However, it is not simply those in the older generations who can reap the results of strength training and bone health.
The benefits of strength training for youth has also been widely researched, with results highlighting that this form of training can increase bone mineral density by up to 7.7% in young adults. More impressively, the findings of one 2014 study found that strength training increased bone mineral density in 18 - 23 year olds by as much as 5% in just 3 months.
Overall, by stressing your bones, strength training can increase bone density in both older and younger participants and, in theory, reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
#5 Improves Cardiovascular Health
With 2.3 million people in the UK living with cardiovascular disease, perhaps the most important of all strength training health benefits is its power to battle cardiovascular risk factors.
Abdominal fat (also known as visceral fat) wraps around and encases the body’s vital organs, including the heart, and has been linked to the cause of cardiovascular disease. By reducing abdominal fat, strength training can in theory improve heart health and reduce the risk of such complications, potentially more so than other forms of training.
This can be supported by a 2014 study, where researchers followed more than 10,000 men over the course of 12 years and found that strength training was significantly better at battling increases in abdominal fat than cardio.
In addition to cardiovascular disease, strength training has also been suggested as an aid for high blood pressure, a condition which stresses the body’s blood vessels, causing them to become weak and can eventually be the cause of heart attacks and strokes.
A study conducted by The Physician and sportsmedicine, which saw a subject group of over 1600 participants prescribed different exercise programmes, found strength training to significantly reduce resting blood pressure in participants aged 21 to 80 years.
Plus, in a meta-analysis on the physical benefits of strength training, it was found two or more months of regular training significantly lowered both systolic and diastolic resting blood pressure.
This concludes that strength training could be an effective intervention strategy to prevent and combat hypertension.
Furthermore, strength training may also help balance high-density lipoprotein (HDL) - or “good” cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) - “bad” cholesterol.
Of course, strength training isn't the only form of training that carries advantages for cardiovascular health, as cardio & aerobic exercise benefits your cardiovascular system in a significant way also.
If LDL levels are high and HDL levels are low there is a risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests strength training may increase HDL cholesterol by up to 21% and reduce LDL cholesterol by up to 23%, proving strength training to reduce the risk of bad cholesterol.
#6 Controls Blood Sugar Levels
As mentioned in the former point, research indicates that strength training is effective in lowering blood pressure, therefore presenting a huge benefit for those with type 2 diabetes.
It is common knowledge that cardio and aerobic exercise provides a great aid for diabetes management, however recent scientific findings suggest that strength training could in fact be even more effective.
In a 2013 study published in BioMed Research International, researchers found that strength training improves the muscle's ability to use glucose and reduces abdominal fat, which is directly linked to insulin sensitivity. The study concluded that strength training is an effective measure to improve overall metabolic health and reduce metabolic risk factors in diabetic patients.
To provide this with further explanation, muscle cells have lock and key receptors; the lock being transporters on the muscle and the key being blood sugars.
Strength training improves the sensitivity of transporters (locks), improving the muscle's ability to pick up more blood sugars from the blood and into the muscle (increasing the transporters' sensitivity) and thereby, decreasing blood sugar levels and reducing the body's need to over-produce insulin, the cause of diabetes type 2.
Furthermore, strength training benefits for controlling blood sugar also stem from its ability to reduce liver fat in people with obesity and those with diabetes. The liver plays a key role in blood sugar management and the development of diabetes, as it produces, stores, and controls blood sugar levels.
If the body produces too much fat, it can build up in the liver and lead to inflammation and liver failure, meaning those who are overweight are at a higher risk of developing liver disease and diabetes.
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While most forms of exercise can help reduce these risks by managing weight, a study in the Journal of Endocrinology indicated that strength training provides the most effective results for achieving this, further demonstrating the health benefits of strength training for blood sugar control and overall health.
#7 Improves Mental Wellbeing
In addition to the medical and physical benefits of strength training, there are also a number of confirmed mental benefits of strength training, too.
You may have heard of ‘runner's high’, a highly raved about term in the fitness industry which defines the euphoria people experience following a bout of aerobic exercise, however what you may not know is strength training inflicts similar feelings, as well as improving symptoms of clinical depression and anxiety.
This mainly comes as a result of exercise-triggered endorphins; when we engage in exercise, our bodies release the brain chemicals endorphins, which help to relieve stress and pain as well as directly boost our mood. This is the result of the increase of blood flow, oxygen and other nutrients to the brain that occurs when we exercise.
Some of the mental health benefits of strength training for men and women include the opportunity to overcome obstacles and hit targets, increasing mental resilience, and improved self-esteem, with findings suggesting that strength training elevates body image and how attractive we perceive ourselves to be regardless of whether we have aesthetic results or not.
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There are a number of studies that provide concrete evidence for these claims, for instance a 2016 study found that participants aged 55 to 86 undergoing strength training for six months had significantly improved thinking patterns and brainpower compared to a control, with researchers concluding that strength training can protect against cognitive decline in mature adults.
It has been suggested a number of times that regular exercise of any intensity and any form, including strength training, can help prevent depression, with findings suggesting that just as little as one hour a week can help.
Additionally, a 2014 review of randomised control trials into the effects of resistance training found that it displayed optimistic results in reducing anxiety in healthy adults.
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#8 Manages Chronic Illness
Long term benefits of strength training include the ability to reduce the symptoms and manage chronic illness over time. We have already touched on a couple, such as strength training benefits for depression, obesity, sarcopenia and diabetes, however, the list goes far beyond just those.
For example, strength training benefits for chronic illness include: the management of chronic lower back pain, Parkinson’s Disease, osteoarthritis, cancer and strokes.
This can be supported by the findings of a systematic review, where the researcher outlined how strength training reduced pain and improved mobility in those suffering from low back pain better than aerobic exercises.
In a number of reviews summarising trials based around strength training, a moderate but significant effect has been found for its ability to reduce pain associated with osteoarthritis, and it's a moderate to large effect in reducing pain in patients suffering fibromyalgia.
While strength training cannot cure Parkinson’s Disease, a progressive disease of the nervous system, research suggests it can assist in reducing the significance of the symptoms that come as a result of it.
The markers of Parkinson’s are most commonly associated as: muscular rigidity, physical shakes and slow, uncertain movement. A number of studies into strength training and the disease suggest that a progressive resistance training programme can improve walking initiation, speed, and power in those diagnosed.
For those who have previously suffered a stroke, progressive strength training has been outlined by medical experts as a safe and effective form of regaining and improving muscle strength in those who experienced minor weaknesses.
While not as heavily researched, there is supporting evidence that weight and strength training provides a level of success during therapy and recovery from cancer in maintaining muscle mass and overall weight, which may have been lost as a direct result of chemotherapy and radiation treatments.
If you're enjoying this article, then we think you'll find the following reads interesting:
- Kettlebells: Benefits & Uses
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- 23 Best Bicep Exercises for Mass & Strength
#9 Prolongs Lifespan
Finally, there is sufficient research to suggest that strength training could reverse ageing factors in skeletal muscle and further reduce the negative effects of ageing by reducing fat levels.
Unsurprisingly, a higher body composition of more lean muscle mass to body fat is found to be a measure of greater longevity. However, the benefits of strength training for men and women in terms of lifespan, and particularly a healthy one at that, goes beyond this.
For example, abdominal fat is a serious risk factor for cancer, with research showing that abdominal fat produces high levels of cancer-triggering proteins. In cancer treatment, lower muscle mass is associated with faster tumour progression, chemotherapy toxicity, and overall low survival rates.
Research suggests strength training may improve cells function and the muscle's ability to repair oxidative damage, the cause of cancer at a cellular level.
Furthermore, strength training may reverse mitochondrial deterioration. Mitochondria is the cell's energy powerhouse that is needed for the cell to survive, however its deterioration can typically occur during the ageing process. By reversing this, you are in turn elongating the cell’s, and (in theory) your own lifespan.
If you're particularly interested in using strength training for this benefit, you may want to hop over to our article highlighting the benefits of green tea, as prolonged lifespan is also an advantage of the health lauded beverage.
Strength Training Risks
As with any form of training and fitness programmes, it is always advised that you ease yourself into it gradually to prevent putting strain on your body that could result in serious injuries.
To name a few of the most notable risks that you should be aware of prior to incorporating strength training into your gym routine:
- Lifting weights that are too heavy can cause: muscle and joint damage, ruptured tendons and spinal injuries, such as herniated discs.
- Not allowing your body enough rest can result in a number of injuries and illnesses.
- Doing movements beyond your normal range of motion can also cause injury, you should always work on your mobility to extend your range of motion in order to better perform exercises and achieve optimal results.
- By handling gym equipment irresponsibly, this can result in a number of injuries. For instance nearly two out of three upper-body weight lifting injuries occur from dropping weights.
- Finding yourself trapped under a bar when handling too much weight (particularly when performing squats or bench press) can, understandably, present a risk to lifters. We always advise having a spotter when performing these exercises for strength.
- In extreme cases, heavy lifting can even tear a heart artery, which could result in death.
How Often Should You Strength Train?
Knowing how many days you should train for strength is a debatable topic, with as much scientific evidence to back the answer of two days a week as there are those who suggest five. It all boils down to your goals and fitness level.
In order to reap the benefits of strength training without risking injury or excessive fatigue, it is essential to find a healthy balance between engaging in enough lifting to see results, and enough rest for thorough recovery. You can read more about the importance of rest days and how many you need in our full report here.
While there is no concrete answer to this question, we are going to approach it from what we would recommend for those just starting out with strength training, and those at a more intermediate to advanced level.
Strength Training as a Beginner
The general advice when you’re a beginner with strength training is to focus predominantly on full body workouts that consist mainly of compound lifts. With this type of programme, it will require at least one day off in between sessions, meaning you will engage in strength training approximately 2-3 times a week, and you should not exceed this.
An early experiment paper published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research concluded that a one day a week maintenance programme is sufficient enough to retain strength during the competitive season for pubescent baseball players. Therefore also suggesting that even in advanced weight lifters, benefits can be achieved from minimal, yet strenuous strength training sessions.
If you are completely new to weight training, you may want to ease yourself in with resistance bands. To read a more in depth comparison of resistance bands vs weights, we have an entire guide that explores this.
Compound lifts are popular exercises in fitness due to the fact they engage multiple muscles simultaneously. While there is a vast list of compound exercises, the following provide some great examples for beginners to start with:
- Bench press
- Overhead barbell press
- Barbell row
Strength Training at an Intermediate/Advanced Level
As you advance, training frequency becomes a matter of individual preference and training styles. Maintaining the two-to-three-days-a-week regimen is acceptable for most people. It's a matter of listening to your body and testing to see what works best for you while using a log of your workouts, of course.
In a recent study which explored whether strength training improves metabolic health markers in older individuals regardless of training frequency, the research suggested that having more than two resistance training sessions in a week could be of benefit in the management of body composition and lipid profile.
The frequency of weekly strength training is amongst the most debated topics within the fitness and athletic industry; a number of studies have presented findings to support the theory that a lower frequency of training could be just as effective as higher frequency training.
However, other findings indicate that consistent training of three training sessions could produce up to twice the increase in cross sectional area of specific muscle groups, such as quadriceps and elbow flexors, compared to one training session per week per muscle group. Only further highlighting that there is no solidified answer to the question.
While advanced lifters should still continue to perform the same compound lifts as those of beginners, they can improve and build on these by increasing the variables of sets, reps and, most importantly, resistance.
Alternatively, advanced lifters can benefit from periodisation training - defined as the “long-term cyclic structuring of training and practice to maximize performance to coincide with important competitions.” It involves strategic implementation of specific training phases.
These training phases are based upon increasing and decreasing both volume (reps and sets) and intensity (the load or percentage of 1 Rep Max) when designing a training program. Periodization programs have been shown to be most effective in improving muscular strength, motor performance, fat free mass and percent body fat.
Advanced lifters can also introduce some more complex movements into their training to further challenge themselves, such as:
- Turkish Get-Ups
- Glute ham raises
- Reverse hyperextensions
It is important to note that we only recommend trying out these exercises for those who have been strength training for a while.
Sets and Reps in Strength Training
Unlike when you’re training for muscular hypertrophy or endurance, strength training requires much fewer repetitions and sets, with a much longer rest in between sets.
The elongated rest periods are required as when strength training, you are lifting a significantly heavier weight and relying more on the nervous system. This therefore requires a longer rest in between to restore strength, delay fatigue and enable for consistent performance.
Generally speaking, we advise when training for strength, you should perform between 1-5 repetitions of an exercise, carrying out two sets and engaging in roughly 90-180 seconds of rest between sets.
Importance of Dieting with Strength Training
Let's get one thing straight; carbs are not the enemy. In fact, no nutrition group is the enemy when approached in the correct way.
When training for strength, ensuring you have enough energy is key to your success and results. Energy is mainly derived from carbohydrates, making them a necessity for an effective training session that will achieve results. Protein is essential for the recovery process, as they help the muscles recover after a workout, as well as assist in the muscle growth process.
Fats, contrast to popular belief, also play a vital part in strength training, as they help produce testosterone which, in turn, is important for promoting muscle growth.
Strength training breaks down muscle tissue (this is a required process!), which during the recovery process, rebuilds much stronger and bigger. However, the body cannot form new muscle tissue from nothing. In order to achieve muscle tissue and growth, it is vital that you are feeding your body with the appropriate nutrients to enable it to do this.
If you’re not eating enough, or at least not enough of the correct nutrients - particularly protein, this can have the opposite effect and in fact lead to a loss of muscle tissue.
To achieve the best results in muscle mass and strength growth, you need to ensure you:
- Consume enough calories each day
- Consume adequate protein in order to rebuild more muscle tissue
If you eat a lot of protein but not enough overall calories, you will struggle to be able to workout to build more muscle.
If you eat enough calories but too much junk and not enough protein, your body will not be able to build up muscle tissue and will, instead, gain fat.
You can learn more about this, as well as other areas of nutrition by enrolling onto the OriGym Level 4 Advanced Sports Nutrition Course.
Calorie Intake Variables
The number of calories you require each day varies entirely from one individual to the next; this is due to there being a number of variables that have to be factored into consideration. The variables that decipher a person’s caloric intake are:
- Overall general health
Calculating your basal metabolic rate (BMR - the number of calories required to keep your body functioning at rest) is simple; all you need to measure is your weight and height, though your age and sex also come into play. The calculations for both sexes are as follows:
For an accurate idea of how many calories you should be consuming a day to achieve optimal results from strength training, you can find a number of resources online that can calculate this for you on the basis of the aforementioned variables. Bodybuilding.com’s calorie calculator is a great resource for this.
You can also elaborate further on this and figure out how much of the three primary macronutrient groups (protein, carbs and fat) you should be consuming depending on your goals, which in this case would be building strength.
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Written by Professional S & C Coaches
Thought the benefits of fitness lay solely in the hands of cardio? You couldn't have been more mistaken. We hope by now your perception may have changed and you know that strength training is not just about StrongMen lifting extremely heavy weights to triple their muscle size. Regular strength training is an important part of everybody’s overall fitness.
So, let's briefly sum up; what are the benefits of strength training?
Increased muscle mass, better body mechanics, weight and chronic illness management, stronger bones, improved mental and cardiovascular health, controlled blood sugar levels and a longer lifespan, there is nobody that will not benefit from implementing strength training of some level into their lives.
If you’re looking to take your passion for fitness to the next level, whether that be in strength training like we have spoken about here, or maybe aerobic and cardio interests, then why not look into becoming a personal trainer with OriGym? We offer a great range of online personal trainer courses, including a Strength & Conditioning CPD Course.
You can also download our latest course prospectus for more information.
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- Villareal DT, Aguirre L, Gurney AB, et al. Aerobic or Resistance Exercise, or Both, in Dieting Obese Older Adults. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(20):1943-1955. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1616338.
- Almstedt HC, Canepa JA, Ramirez DA, Shoepe TC. Changes in bone mineral density in response to 24 weeks of resistance training in college-age men and women. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Apr;25(4):1098-103. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d09e9d. PMID: 20647940.
- Thomas MH, Burns SP. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training. Int J Exerc Sci. 2016;9(2):159-167. Published 2016 Apr 1.